You will find microwave radio signals between 500 MHz to 300 GHz — they are good representations of high frequency and short wavelengths of electromagnetic waves.
In terrestrial communication, about 35% of the class of communication is maintained under microwave radio relay systems. Examples of microwave radio communication systems are intrastate microwave systems or feeder service and long-haul microwave systems which operate between 15 miles to 4,000 miles.
Some of the benefits of microwave radio communication are:
Ability to transmit large quantities of data
Because of their high frequencies, they are capable of broadcasting large quantities of information.
Microwave communication systems, because of microwave repeaters, also have the ability to transmit data over extremely long distances.
When the repeater receives the signal of transmission, it undergoes a conversion into an electrical signal and re-transmission as microwave signal at very full strength. Through the earth’s atmosphere, microwave radio communication systems propagate signal.
Receivers lie on top of towers, and the signals are sent between them and the receivers. Owing to this, microwave radio systems transmit several data channels between certain points without a reliance on wire cables or fiber optics which are physical media.
Relatively low costs
Compared with other forms of data transmission such as wire-line technologies, microwave communication systems have relatively low construction costs.
There is no use for expensive attenuation equipment or physical cables.
An example of attenuation equipment is devices that maintain signal strength during transmission. Rooftops, hills, and mountains provide accessible and inexpensive bases for these towers.
Some of the disadvantages of microwave radio communication are:
The systems do not pass through solid objects.
If you want to send one signal from one city to the other, it can be a problem in cities with several tall mountains or buildings in the region.
One solution is to erect repeaters between two towers in a case where an object acts as an obstruction.
Solid objects and the ionosphere can also block off signals. In earth-moon-earth communications known as moon bouncing, it is also possible that microwaves bounce off the moon.
Subject to electromagnetic and other interference
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) degrades or obstructs microwave signals’ performance.
Interferences such as wind turbines, electric power transmission, and electric motors disrupt microwave communication.
For example, wind turbines diffract radio, microwave, and TV signals when between receivers and transmitters. Heavy moisture such as fog, rain, and snow also degrade microwave radio communication.
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